The University of Paris began to develop the idea of faculties that differentiated areas of study. The topics of focus that began to develop in universities were philosophy, where still the traditional title for PhDs is doctor of philosophy, medicine, logic, theology, law, mathematics, astronomy, and grammar. These branches of study were seen to be related to a humanistic perspective, as many required translation of ancient works in addition to a focus on the discipline. Early universities were rigid and heavily influenced by Aristotle's notion of the sciences and learning.
However, scholars began to experiment with new ways of learning and experimentation. Disciplines began to break away from a heavy influence of humanistic influences.
Ancient higher-learning institutions Platonic Academy Lyceum Monastic schools Cathedral schools Medieval universities. Another step was when Pope Alexander III in "forbidding masters of the church schools to take fees for granting the license to teach licentia docendi , and obliging them to give license to properly qualified teachers". The dramatic decline in the standing of the United States abroad in recent years is exacerbating the situation. Everywhere students began with the study of the Arts—the trivium and quadrivium—before moving on to more advanced subjects such as medicine, law, and theology. Bobbi rated it liked it Feb 29, Daughter of a professor, albeit not medieval; again considering a fish vs.
This led to the divergent development of the sciences from the humanities within an education system. By the 18th century, universities also began developing research journals, encouraging scholars to publish and circulate their findings with other scholars. In Germany, Wilhelm von Humboldt developed ideas of academic freedom, seminars, and laboratories as a way for universities to foster debate, knowledge, and new scientific inquiry. During the 19th century, public universities available for the masses became more widespread.
It was only in the 19th century that religion began to become less of an important focus in the curriculum. This gradually made universities secular higher education institutions and, with the development of the Industrial Revolution, many universities began to more greatly focus on the sciences as industrialization began to develop as a form of competition between the Western world.
In Britain, the concept of the civic university was seen as an engine for developing a secular, economic potential that used the masses by giving them access to education. The British Empire and later other European empires began to transplant the European model of education around the world. While the United States began to adopt some of the German model for a research university, much of the rest of the world also was instilled with European concepts.
These then became pervasive and entrenched within countries such that when colonial powers diminished in the 20th century, the university systems they either founded or had fostered as educational models were largely kept in places such as India, Kenya, and in the Middle East. Today's universities have diversified further. Private universities that have a business-like or for profit model has been one prominent model developed recently. Intergovernmental and universities built by countries in foreign places have been created as a way to promote ideas or training that is similar to what one might obtain in the home countries.
This has spread many similar concepts of universities world wide, where countries with very different cultures and traditions now have relatively similar ideas of universities. This has also become a way in which countries now see universities as a way to compete in the global marketplace, as they train their masses and develop their economic competitiveness.
What we seen then is that higher education changed conceptually from restricted academic institutions, to the foundation of universities, which proved to be similar to guilds in the Medieval period. It was only in the late Medieval and Early Modern era that universities began to spread more rapidly and in the 19th century these institutions became fully secular. This secularization, and later acceptance of women, helped the masses to enroll in universities during the 19th century. The concept of mass education became established as industrialization became a key for countries' economic success and power.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Catan, and Giovanni Reale. Plato and Aristotle. Albany, NY: State Univ. Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist. However, overall, this text is an excellent starting point for those new to the very early history of universities. Apr 17, Afiqah Zulkifli rated it it was amazing. Aug 17, Robert rated it liked it.
This is a series of lectures converted into a book. Reader be forewarned. The continuity is of the spoken word, not of the written one. Also the author presupposes certain knowledge. It was an interesting look into the rise of the modern collegiate system. Although written almost a century ago , this is an enjoyable not dry overview of the early universities and their founding.
Although Pederson is perhaps more comprehensive, Haskins' work is an excellent introduction to the topic. Sep 17, Jonfaith rated it it was ok.
I bought this for a quarter this morning. The premise was rather promising.
Apparently the text was culled from a rasher of lectures delivered in the s. There is a depressing dearth of example or citation.
I would've pitched it were it not for the links to Waddell's Wandering Scholars. Apr 24, Marissa rated it liked it Shelves: non-fiction. Three lectures constitute this explanation of how American universities can find their roots in Medieval European universities. It was written in the s and is still considered a seminal work on the topic. It contained some interesting information about how universities evolved. Jun 21, Steve rated it liked it Shelves: books-of Jul 18, Eugene Kernes rated it liked it Shelves: education. An easy and quick read on how universities came to be. Most of the book describes the early 12th and 13th century Western university, teacher and student.
The earliest universities were founded in Paris and Bologna.
Before universities, if someone studied under a scholar, they would not be able to show proof of the studies. The rise of universities was the diploma received as An easy and quick read on how universities came to be. The rise of universities was the diploma received as proof of the studies and the general concentration of study. Over time, and due to the demands of the students, the teachers become professionalized and needed a sort of license to teach.
Also over time, universities became guilds for scholars and students became more a necessary cost.
Teachers taught mostly practical issues such as law, medicine, grammar, and logic. Teachers can teach anything as long as it was what acceptable from the perspective of the authoritarian doctrine. The medieval students resemble students of contemporary time, with more time spending in leisure than study. Students used to write letters to their patrons for more money for studies, of which the money was often not spent on studies.
Some of the money went to bribing the teachers for good grades. The author explains that part of the rise of universities was the knowledge bought from the Arabic world, while does not specify whether they had universities. The book also misses what seem to be universities, at least by definition, in China at earlier times.
May 22, Ghalib Suleiman rated it it was amazing. How did universities come about?
Read this book to find out. It's a collection of lectures so is rather readable. Sep 01, Erin rated it really liked it.