Planning for Engineers and Surveyors

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GPS used a larger constellation of satellites and improved signal transmission to provide more accuracy.

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Early GPS observations required several hours of observations by a static receiver to reach survey accuracy requirements. RTK surveys get high-accuracy measurements by using a fixed base station and a second roving antenna. The position of the roving antenna can be tracked. Remote sensing and satellite imagery continue to improve and become cheaper, allowing more commonplace use. Prominent new technologies include three-dimensional 3D scanning and use of lidar for topographical surveys. UAV technology along with photogrammetric image processing is also appearing.

Most instruments screw onto a tripod when in use. Tape measures are often used for measurement of smaller distances. The theodolite is an instrument for the measurement of angles. It uses two separate circles , protractors or alidades to measure angles in the horizontal and the vertical plane. A telescope mounted on trunnions is aligned vertically with the target object. The whole upper section rotates for horizontal alignment. The vertical circle measures the angle that the telescope makes against the vertical, known as the zenith angle.

ncof.co.uk/bondad-moral-e-inteligencia-tica.php The horizontal circle uses an upper and lower plate. When beginning the survey, the surveyor points the instrument in a known direction bearing , and clamps the lower plate in place. The instrument can then rotate to measure the bearing to other objects. If no bearing is known or direct angle measurement is wanted, the instrument can be set to zero during the initial sight.

It will then read the angle between the initial object, the theodolite itself, and the item that the telescope aligns with.

The gyrotheodolite is a form of theodolite that uses a gyroscope to orient itself in the absence of reference marks. It is used in underground applications. The total station is a development of the theodolite with an electronic distance measurement device EDM. A total station can be used for leveling when set to the horizontal plane. Since their introduction, total stations have shifted from optical-mechanical to fully electronic devices.

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Modern top-of-the-line total stations no longer need a reflector or prism to return the light pulses used for distance measurements. They are fully robotic, and can even e-mail point data to a remote computer and connect to satellite positioning systems , such as Global Positioning System. Static GPS uses two receivers placed in position for a considerable length of time.

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The long span of time lets the receiver compare measurements as the satellites orbit. The changes as the satellites orbit also provide the measurement network with well conditioned geometry. RTK surveying uses one static antenna and one roving antenna. The static antenna tracks changes in the satellite positions and atmospheric conditions. The surveyor uses the roving antenna to measure the points needed for the survey. The two antennas use a radio link that allows the static antenna to send corrections to the roving antenna.

The roving antenna then applies those corrections to the GPS signals it is receiving to calculate its own position. RTK surveying covers smaller distances than static methods. This is because divergent conditions further away from the base reduce accuracy.

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Surveying instruments have characteristics that make them suitable for certain uses. Theodolites and levels are often used by constructors rather than surveyors in first world countries. The constructor can perform simple survey tasks using a relatively cheap instrument. Total stations are workhorses for many professional surveyors because they are versatile and reliable in all conditions. The productivity improvements from a GPS on large scale surveys makes them popular for major infrastructure or data gathering projects.

One-person robotic-guided total stations allow surveyors to measure without extra workers to aim the telescope or record data. A fast but expensive way to measure large areas is with a helicopter, using a GPS to record the location of the helicopter and a laser scanner to measure the ground. Surveyors use ancillary equipment such as tripods and instrument stands; staves and beacons used for sighting purposes; PPE ; vegetation clearing equipment; digging implements for finding survey markers buried over time; hammers for placements of markers in various surfaces and structures; and portable radios for communication over long lines of sight.

Land surveyors, construction professionals and civil engineers using total station , GPS , 3D scanners and other collector data use Land Surveying Software to increase efficiency, accuracy and productivity. Land Surveying Software is a staple of contemporary land surveying.

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Surveyors determine the position of objects by measuring angles and distances. The factors that can affect the accuracy of their observations are also measured. They then use this data to create vectors, bearings, coordinates, elevations, areas, volumes, plans and maps. Measurements are often split into horizontal and vertical components to simplify calculation. GPS and astronomic measurements also need measurement of a time component. Before EDM devices, distances were measured using a variety of means. These included chains with links of a known length such as a Gunter's chain , or measuring tapes made of steel or invar.

To measure horizontal distances, these chains or tapes were pulled taut to reduce sagging and slack. The distance had to be adjusted for heat expansion. Attempts to hold the measuring instrument level would also be made.

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When measuring up a slope, the surveyor might have to "break" break chain the measurement- use an increment less than the total length of the chain. Perambulators , or measuring wheels, were used to measure longer distances but not to a high level of accuracy.

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William Gascoigne invented an instrument that used a telescope with an installed crosshair as a target device, in This type of surveying is usually employed for large survey works. Michigan P. Perambulators , or measuring wheels, were used to measure longer distances but not to a high level of accuracy. RTK surveys get high-accuracy measurements by using a fixed base station and a second roving antenna. Independent checks like measuring a point from two or more locations or using two different methods are used. Differences in height between the measurements are added and subtracted in a series to get the net difference in elevation between the two endpoints.

Tacheometry is the science of measuring distances by measuring the angle between two ends of an object with a known size. It was sometimes used before to the invention of EDM where rough ground made chain measurement impractical. Historically, horizontal angles were measured by using a compass to provide a magnetic bearing or azimuth.

Later, more precise scribed discs improved angular resolution. Mounting telescopes with reticles atop the disc allowed more precise sighting see theodolite. Levels and calibrated circles allowed measurement of vertical angles. Verniers allowed measurement to a fraction of a degree, such as with a turn-of-the-century transit. The plane table provided a graphical method of recording and measuring angles, which reduced the amount of mathematics required. In Francis Ronalds invented a reflecting instrument for recording angles graphically by modifying the octant.

By observing the bearing from every vertex in a figure, a surveyor can measure around the figure. This is called a close. If the first and last bearings are different, this shows the error in the survey, called the angular misclose. The surveyor can use this information to prove that the work meets the expected standards. When more precise measurements are needed, means like precise levels also known as differential leveling are used.

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When precise leveling, a series of measurements between two points are taken using an instrument and a measuring rod. Differences in height between the measurements are added and subtracted in a series to get the net difference in elevation between the two endpoints. Usually GPS is somewhat less accurate than traditional precise leveling, but may be similar over long distances.

When using an optical level, the endpoint may be out of the effective range of the instrument. There may be obstructions or large changes of elevation between the endpoints. In these situations, extra setups are needed.