Registers and modes of communication in the ancient Near East : getting the message across. Editor ; Davis, Gillan Editor.
N2 - It is the quintessential nature of humans to communicate with each other. AB - It is the quintessential nature of humans to communicate with each other. Registers and modes of communication in the ancient Near East: getting the message across Kyle H. Department of Ancient History. Abstract It is the quintessential nature of humans to communicate with each other. Fingerprint Ancient Near East.
Human Experience. Since then, the television has seen a myriad of changes and improvements. From the implementation of color transmission to massive improvements in screen resolution, the televisions of today are far different than their predecessors, unlike radio which has staying relatively the same.
And while prior versions had only a handful of different channels to choose from, the modern television, when combined with the internet, now offers millions of hours of content straight from a single device.
With research funded by the United States government beginning in and its continued development in the s, the internet has been around less than 50 years. It allows instant communication between parties on the other side of the planet and lets users access data that would otherwise be impossible to obtain, and even impossible to comprehend. TVs, mobile phones, desktop computers, and tablets are all able to access this enormous network of information, making anyone in the world just a Skype, text, email, or Snapchat away.
Modern technology has made such advancements that all sorts of surprising objects, from toasters to doorbells, are able to access the internet wirelessly through WiFi networks and Bluetooth technology. The ease of internet connectivity has led to a whole new level of connectivity, and not just in the social realm.
Businesses and companies are able to have real-time access to trillions of data points in an instant, enabling them to monitor market updates, safety conditions, or global communications instantaneously and bringing an entirely new reality to business and government as well as personal communications.
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Have a business that needs commercial installation or planning? Call us at or email our commercial installation services. Questions or Comments? Contact Us. Within this line of reasoning, he perceives the projection of collective ideas and their incorporation into forms such as dance, games, architecture new stories, etcetera, as the process creating a ritual and symbolic order that serves to represent the basic order of things and display behaviours alongside continuous and fragile social processes.
While the ritual vision of Communication does not represent a core topic in US academia, according to Carey, this only results from an intellectual assumption as regards the idea of culture in the country. In turn, this attitude partially owes its origins due to obsessive individualism, the overvaluation of psychological life, the undervaluation of the meaning of any human activities that are not practically based and designed for productively working. In his perspective, another important factor in the undervaluing of the cultural facet within the social thinking taking place in the United States involves the absence of any notion that science plays part of that culture, or alternatively expressed, the separation of science from the universe of culture.
There is a certain irony to the way in which Carey summarises this feature of the American mentality: "science provides culture-free truth whereas culture provides ethnocentric error" CAREY,  a, p. We may better grasp this cultural framework when interrelating it with the effects of the prestige acquired by the natural sciences in the reorganisation of the sphere of knowledge.
The scientific achievements in physics, chemistry and biology led not only tothe belief that certain forms of knowledge literature, history, other cultural forms What the Carey quotation unravels is how the aura acquired by science came at the cost of breaking its bond with culture in the sense of it taking a stance in opposition to ideology.
Furthermore, in the conviction that science represents the solution to every problem having become the strongest ideological representation of the modern world. However, as regards the generalisation about the adhesion of Communication studies in the United States to this transmissive perspective, Carey, in another essay, maintains that there are many exceptions CAREY, , p.
In the same text, he insists that American studies are based on a vision of Communication that might be designated either transmissive or transport because, on the one hand,. It is also related strongly to the nineteenth-century desire to use communication and transportation to extend influence, control, and power over wider distances and over greater populations CAREY, , p. Reflecting on newspapers enables Carey to set out the differences between the transmissive and cultural visions.
The transmissive vision tends to approach the newspaper as a means of informing the public, spreading news and entertainment over ever longer distances; raising questions as to its effects on audiences, their functions and the role of news relative to processes of social integration, stability and adaptation. As regards the ritual vision, the newspaper, more than describing the world, renders feasible the collective participation in a social rite that ensures a collective dialogue may take place and a reality becomes shared.
The reading of the newspaper thereby represents an act in which the reader joins a world of openly struggling powers as if an observer at some game or other. The ritual vision sees in the news not mere information but an invitation to participate based upon our taking on, and frequently in a vicarious fashion, social roles within this process. To the extent that readers make their journeys through the newspaper, they commit themselves to continuously changing roles and dramatic focus 8 CAREY,  a, p. We would note the way in which Carey puts forward the example of the ritual of newspaper reading to discuss the differences between the ritual and transmissive visions and indicating how this distinction should in no way be seen in any rigid fashion.
The ritual also spans diverse means of mass Communication. The ritual vision does not exclude the process of transmitting information or the change in attitude and defending only how it does not prove possible to understand the correct form of these processes without placing them within a vision of Communication and social order that is primarily ritualistic. One commentator on the work Carey, Kenneth Cmiel , p. If, on multiple occasions, the distinction between the theory of ritual and transmissive Communication takes on an incisive form, on other occasions the separation is not completely clear.
This tension reveals a broader ambiguity that Cmiel detects in Carey whenever approaching modernity. Despite his critical distance regarding the trends in power and trade in the modern world, Carey "by no means wants to turn the clock back" CMIEL, , p. Whatever the case, one aspect proves clear to Carey: that which is fundamental to Communication cannot be displaced into the spheres of transporting signs or transmitting messages. This arises out of the risk of the transmissive vision becoming that which impoverishes the essential to Communication: "Communication is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired and transformed" CAREY,  a, p.
Communication represents the foundations for human solidarity, producing the social limits, fictitious or otherwise, that bond men and render their associative life probable. Society only proves feasible out of the strength of the bonds enabling mutual intelligibility and a reality shared by its co-participants. In accordance with the ritual vision, Communication is a "ceremonial" participation in which we manage, preserve and transform culture. What is at play in ritual Communication extends beyond the mere conveyance of information or messages but rather includes co-creation and the sharing of those cultural activities that define reality.
We live in realities broadly created by Communication and we very commonly neglect how this proves intrinsically ritualistic. Carey was certainly postulating rituals highly varied in their forms of presentation and interrelationship with the daily life, the reading of the newspaper and discussing the news, attending and participating in classes, academic tests, parliamentary debates, court trials, conversing with friends, visiting family, going to mass, celebrating birthdays, funeral ceremonies, community parties and so forth. In participatory rituals such as the latter, the condition of sharing an understood reality is, Carey maintains, closer to the true purposes of Communication.
Carey conjectures that each of the two visions on Communication might interconnect with particular historical periods and with an immense scope in terms of the effects associated with the social order, technologies, forms of domination and the emergence of economic models.
Carey considers that the transmissive vision had dominated American thought since the s, the inter-war period. However Carey adds that each vision is interrelating with the different perspectives in terms of the nature of language, thinking and symbolism: "The transmission view of Communication leads to an emphasis on language as an instrument of practical action and discursive reasoning, of thought as essentially conceptual and individual or reflective, and of symbolism as being preeminently analytic.
A ritual view of Communication, on the other hand, sees language as an instrument of dramatic action, of thought as essentially situational and social, and symbolism as fundamentally fiduciary" CAREY,  a, p. What seems crucial to Carey is how each of these visions shapes how "all these forms of interaction are necessarily the anticipation and creation of forms of social relations and, therefore, of forms of institutionalized modes of conduct and ways of dealing with one another" CAREY; GROSSBERG, b, p.
According to this point of view, the transmissive vision holds a dominant role and, since the second decade of the 20 th century, both in the thinking and the research on Communication in the United States. In attributing technologies a broad spatial range, Communication became profoundly vulnerable in terms of its communicative purpose.
Dewey would also have been aware of the existence of two facets to Communication and the tensions running between them, Careyinsists; even while not having grasped their full extent and having also overvalued scientific information and the information and Communication technologies as a solution to social problems. What is Communication or Communication as a map "of" and "for " reality.
Therefore, Carey's digression over the two visions of Communication enables him to reach deeper in clarifying their meanings: Communication proves the process of building, learning and applying symbolic forms that bring reality to human existence. Human Communication thus represents an activity that constructs a new dimension to reality, the codified and meaning packed world constitutes the symbolic reality in which individuals live. This new dimension to reality gets established by the agency designated as Communication.
Nevertheless, this apparently obvious understanding of what Communication contains does not make its learning any easy process. The activities spanned by Communication, such describing, greeting, self-identification, conversing, giving instructions, sharing knowledge, exchanging significant ideas, searching for information, entertaining and being entertained are as common and mundane as the challenges posed in seeking to transform them into objects of intellectual study, stripping them of their triviality, rendering them strange and, in sum, establishing the problematic framework.
Just as fish ignore their aquatic environment, said Carey, recalling an expression by Marshall McLuhanas to how human beings tend not to pay attention to Communication, this activity shared through language and other symbolic forms constitutes the ambience to the human world CAREY,  a, p. Confronting those who perceive Communication as something "lighter" and deriving in a "more real" existing nature, Carey argues that, whatever the respective level of sophistication attained, from the occasional chat to mathematical expression, Communication encapsulates the primordial phenomenon of human and social life.
These maps are representations, abstractions and simplifications guiding our behaviours while simultaneously transforming undifferentiated spaces into learned and intelligible environments.
These maps are so multiform that they depict that which is not present and produce acts when the real stimulus is not even physically present. Different maps present the same living environment in diverse different fashions to produce different realities. All these maps are representations "of" reality and representations "for" reality, "symbols of" and "symbols for". In the exercise Carey undertakes with the prepositions "of" and "for", what is at stake is a definition of Communication that does not boil down to the creation of meanings and versions of reality but rather implies asking just which meanings, which values and moral senses are guiding us through life.
Symbolical activities, as Carey highlights do not only involve the production of reality, they also imply the maintaining of that which is produced as there shall always be new generations for whom the forms of preceding cultural expression prove insufficiently problematic and for whom reality requires renewing.
Expressed in this fashion reveals the vast empirical field spanning all of the attempts to build, maintain, repair and transform reality, all of the publically observable activities taking place over the course of historical time. The creation, expression and transmission of our knowledge about something and our orientations towards such realities stem from the construction of a variety of symbolic systems, such as art, science, journalism, religion, common sense, mythology, etcetera.
Hence, to Carey, the so apparently very simple questions that Communication studies should formulate are: just how is this done?
In what way do these forms differ? What is the range of their historical and comparative diversity? How do Communication technological transformations wield influence over what might be created and specifically learned?
How do the social groups struggle over the definition of just what is real? In turn, the map metaphor also applies to the very study of Communication. Studying Communication implies building maps, in other words, theories or models for representing communicating processes. Similar to other maps, the theories of Communication are simple and imperfect representations of a complex and contingent process that cannot be understood apart from through their incompleteness.
As with all maps, the study models "of" Communication also prove to be models "for" Communication and hold a dual nature in being not only descriptive but also bearing moral implications.
This is one of the reasons why they were popular with the military throughout this period of history. The pre-Columbian writing systems of the Americas , including Olmec and Mayan , are also generally believed to have had independent origins. Cell Phones In , Motorola produced the first cellphone which weighed 4. This arises out of the risk of the transmissive vision becoming that which impoverishes the essential to Communication: "Communication is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired and transformed" CAREY,  a, p. Early constructions of the telegraph started popping up across the world during the 19th century.