Cognitive Science: An Introduction to Mind and Brain

Models of Mind That Are Implied by Cognitive Science
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Based on the theoretical content of contemporary philosophy of science as shown in Table 4 this part describes the influence of cognitive neuroscience on contemporary philosophy of science. Human culture influences the humanistic trend of philosophy of science. Human cultural scientists focus on the impact of environment and culture on cognitive ability, and regard cognition as a cultural phenomenon.

According to Leslie A. All human culture, including science, relies on symbols, culture, not society. It is a distinctive characteristic of human beings. Culture has a more direct and more important role in science than science in society; a discovery and invention is a synthesis of cultural elements that have existed or a new element is absorbed into one in a cultural system.

Maurice N.

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Summary. Cognitive Science is a major new guide to the central theories and problems in the study of the mind and brain. The authors clearly explain how and . Cognitive Science is a major new guide to the central theories and problems in the study of the mind and brain. The authors clearly explain how and why.

Richter Jr believes that science is a cultural counterpart as a cognitive development of an individual, a growth of traditional cultural knowledge, and a cognitive form of cultural development; The direction of development is similar to the direction of individual cognitive development. The starting point of scientific development is traditional cultural knowledge. The structure of scientific development is generally similar to the structure of evolutionary process, especially the structure similar to the process of cultural evolution.

Science is an individual. The extension of the level to the cognitive development of the cultural level, it is not only a developmental growth above the traditional cultural knowledge, but also a special cognitive variant and extension of cultural evolution. Brune Latour and Karin D. Knorr - Cetina used anthropological methods to study the actual cognitive processes of scientists in the laboratory. Xie Tingna called this method a micro-prone method. Their research shows that the process of scientific cognition is the process by which experimental personnel create scientific facts.

Scientific experiments are not to discover facts but to create facts.

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The experimental social network is not a scientific community, but a social network formed by super-recognizing resource relationships. Cultural studies of science have moved the philosophy of science from a philosophy of science to a philosophy of science and culture. Sixth, cognitive neuroscience affects the cognitive shift of philosophy of science.

For a long time, philosophers are the only cognitive scientists. In part, and the whole philosophical foundation of artificial intelligence is considered to be anti-biological, it is advocated that the abstract program hierarchy with algorithms is independent of the neurobiology of the brain or the hardware level of the computer silicon chip. In other words, neurobiological details do not help people understand the level of cognition.

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For one thing, it has proven extraordinarily hard to provide sets of necessary and sufficient conditions that adequately track pretheoretic intuitions about the application of words, and indeed much research in cognitive science appears to cast doubt on such projects Fodor et al. Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Many of these are discussed in the following chapters. This page was last edited on 29 January , at Brandom, R.

Philosophers, as cognitive scientists, did not regard neuroscience as part of cognitive science at first, and believed that the entire philosophical basis of artificial intelligence is anti-biological; advocating that the abstract program level with algorithms was independent of the neurobiology of the brain or the hardware level of a computer silicon chip. All the difficult problems encountered in intelligent computer research are related to cognitive neuroscience.

The task of cognitive neuroscience is to clarify the brain mechanism of cognitive activities. The discussion of the status quo and future of artificial intelligence has already become the focus of popular culture, which will have far-reaching influence on the development of the organization form and structure of the whole human society [ 7 ].

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According to the structure of cognitive neuroscience and contemporary philosophy of science, the artificial intelligence can be divided into three levels: artificial intelligence, artificial life and artificial wisdom based on cognitive dimension and philosophy of science as shown in Table 5. All human cultures, including science, depend on symbols. It is culture rather than society that is the distinctive feature of human beings.

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Culture plays a more direct and important role in science than society. A kind of discovery and invention is the synthesis of existing cultural elements or the absorption of a new element into a cultural system [ 8 ]. The direction of scientific development is similar to that of individual cognitive development. The structure of scientific development is generally similar to that of evolutionary process.

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It is not only the growth of traditional cultural knowledge, but also a special cognitive variant and extension of cultural evolution. Through the accumulation of traditional cultural knowledge, contemporary philosophers of science can provide basic concepts and ideological basis for cognitive neuroscience, as well as examine and reflect on the basic assumptions by using the methods of argument, conceptual analysis and historical reflection as shown in Table 6. The philosophical method of the use of cognitive neuroscience by contemporary philosophers of science.

Cognitive science deepens the understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. Logical empiricism regards scientific knowledge as a static propositional language system, falsifications emphasizes the process of conjecture of scientific knowledge acquisition, and historicism exaggerates the social agreement factors formed by scientific knowledge. They submerged cognitive problems in language analysis, historical analysis and psychosocial analysis, replacing cognition with the linguistic, historical and social psychology of scientific knowledge, ignoring the close correlation between scientific knowledge and psychological representation.

Although the early thinkers Plato, Locke, and Kant discussed the psychological representation, they were rejected by positivism and behaviourism as a metaphysical construction. The development of cognitive science has made people realize that scientific knowledge is the representation and symbolization of the real world in psychology, and psychological representation provides a partial picture of the real world.

Scientists form a psychological representation of all aspects of their activities, so that scientific knowledge is reflected in the psychological representation of scientists.

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The current central hypothesis of cognitive science holds that the most appropriate understanding of thinking is to regard it as a representational structure in the mind and a computational program that operates on these structures. People generate thoughts and behaviours by running psychological programs on top of psychological representations, while different types of psychological representations of logic, rules, concepts, analogies, representations, and connections support different types of psychological procedures.

Therefore, psychological. The philosophy of mind with information processing as its core has exerted an important influence on scientific realism. To some extent, both enactive cognition and situational cognition can be integrated by embodied cognition [ 9 ]. Therefore, from the discussion of these two points, we can basically distinguish between cognitivism and embodied cognition approach as shown in Figure 2. The emergence of cognitive scientists with philosophical minds and philosophers with cognitive science knowledge is very useful to overcome this gap.

As mentioned above, the profound influences of cognitive neuroscience on contemporary philosophy of science will cause fundamental changes in the research strategy of philosophy of science and the basis of science of interpretation, as shown in Table 7. Based on this, the significance of cognitive neuroscience to contemporary philosophy of science is expressed in the following four aspects:.

The most basic thought of cognitive science comes from the construction of philosophy.

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The task of cognitive neuroscience is to clarify the brain mechanism of cognitive activities [ 10 ]. People produce thinking and behaviour by running psychological procedure on mental representation while logic, rule, concept, analogy, representation and connection of mental representation support different types of philosophical forms.

These representations constitute the knowledge system of the contemporary philosophers of science, and form the common representation of the contemporary scientific philosophy community through the communication and dialogue between the scientific philosophers. To this end, we must reflect on the problems as shown in Table 8. For cognitive neuroscience, each specialized theory that explores the mind is assumed based on basic theory and methodology, and forms the basis of the entire cognitive neuroscience despite further testing is needed.

The basic assumption of dualism is that the mind exists independently of the body while the basic assumption of materialism is that the mind depends on living body. The assumption of representational computation is that the mind is a process of representational computation. They deal with some basic problems of cognitive neuroscience, such as the rationality of computer metaphor, the nature of representation and computation, general knowledge, the nature of intelligence, and the essence of explanation in cognitive science, the function of consciousness in mental research, how people carry out normative thinking, so as to clarify these questions and test the certainty from the logic and significance.

Therefore, we can say that contemporary scientific philosophy without cognitive neuroscience is empty, and cognitive neuroscience without contemporary scientific philosophy is blind. These profound influences of cognitive science on philosophy of science will fundamentally change the research strategy of science philosophy and the foundation of science.

The flourishing research of contemporary neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience has not only answered and solved the mechanism of human cognitive function, but also enriched and supported the research content of philosophy of cognitive neuroscience. Neuroscience with neuron and brain structure as its research object is connected with philosophy, especially philosophy of science, which has become a frontier field in the development of contemporary philosophy of science.

From the perspective of philosophy, especially epistemology, the emergence of the philosophy of cognitive neuroscience is an inevitable process of exploring the mechanism of human cognition to a great extent, which obviously becomes the direct impetus of the emergence of cognitive neuroscience in the field of contemporary philosophy of science.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Transl Neurosci v. Transl Neurosci. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Dec 4; Accepted Jan This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Abstract The study of contemporary philosophy of science based on cognitive neuroscience has strongly promoted the philosophy study of brain cognitive problems.

Keywords: Cognitive neuroscience, Contemporary philosophy of science, Implications. Introduction Cognitive science is an emerging interdisciplinary subject including cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, linguistics, anthropology and cognitive neuroscience. Introduction to cognitive neuroscience The study of the formation of scientific theory from the perspective of cognitive psychology has become a new trend in contemporary philosophy of science. Open in a separate window.

Figure 1. Table 1 Main methods and techniques of cognitive neuroscience. Event-related brain potential ERP A series of brain waves formed by a brain reaction that has a fixed time relationship with actual or expected stimuli sound, light, and electricity. Positron Emission Tomography PET Using a large number of radioactive isotopes present in the natural elements of the human body, multi-level cross-sectional imaging is performed to reflect static or dynamic brain functional status.

Current status and development trend of contemporary philosophy of science Cognitive science makes cognitive problems the focus of scientific philosophy research.

Four major trends in current cognitive science

Table 2 Reasons for not changing the scientific methodology of contemporary philosophy of science. Reason 1 Scientific rationality cannot be dispelled, and philosophy of science should always hold high the banner of scientific rationality. This is the foundation on which the philosophy of science depends.

Main target Difficulty Rebuilding the New Logical Starting Point for the Development of Philosophy of Science How does the starting point surpass the paradigm of logical empiricism, historicism, and post-historicism Build a new platform for mutual dialogue, exchange, penetration and integration between scientific realism and anti-realism among various schools. How to do this on the platform, they can truly communicate with each other and promote together, making it a stage for the growth of scientific philosophy.

Exploring a new base for the mutual reference, mutual complementarity, and cross-intersection of various scientific methodologies On this basis, how to obtain an effective unity of the philosophy of science and forge a viable innovation theory and development direction Adhere to the essence of scientific rationality; we must continue to promote the spirit of scientific rationality.

Only on this basis can we talk about the unity of scientific rationality and irrationality, and talk about the connection between scientific philosophy and the schools or disciplines of scientific sociology, scientific knowledge theory, scientific history, and scientific culture and philosophy. Table 4 Theoretical content of contemporary philosophy of science.